Welcome to the site!
We don't have a guide, per se, but there are some great resources.
The first place I'd stop is our tour. It goes over some of the most fundamental aspects of how all the sites in the Stack Exchange network work.
After that, it really just depends how you learn. For me, I'd jump right onto the site and start using it--post a question or two, post some answers, suggest edits, and you'll pick it all up. None of it is too difficult.
On the other hand, or indeed if you run into any trouble, the help center is a great place to find articles about most mechanical aspects of using the site, like "What's reputation?" and "What does it mean when my answer is accepted?"
Once you've gone through all that, the penultimate resource is right here, on Meta. Meta Ask Patents is for posts about Ask Patents (like yours here), so you can ask about features, community expectations, issues, or even suggest new ideas about how the site should work.